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Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
Family Engagement Resources
Stages of Family Involvement
This Phi Delta Kappan journal article "Stages of immigrant parent involvement - survivors to leaders" by Jennifer Love and Young-chan describes a new model which illustrates that parents' needs, skills, and interests evolve as they move through the stages of Cultural Survivor, Cultural Learner, Cultural Connector, and Cultural Leader. Understanding these stages better equips educators to identify where families are as well as their unique challenges and helps schools determine how best to support them.
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